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The Southern Group. 


Like the Mediate Group of Indo- Aryan vernaculars, the southern one is a group of 
h ™ Grou delects, and not of languages. It includes only one language, 
viz., Marathi. 
Marathi with its sub-dialects occupies parts of three provinces, viz., the Bombay 

Presidency, Berar, and the Central Provinces, with numerous 

Area in which spoken. ... • ^ j <• » *• ,,*.»*■. ^ ., .. 

settlers in Central India and the Madras Presidency, It is the 
principal language of the north-western part of His Highness the Nizam's dominions and of 
Portuguese India. The area in which it is spoken is, roughly speaking, 100,000 square 

On the west, Marathl is bounded by the Arabian Sea, from Daman in the north to 
„,..,„ _, . Karwar in the south. The northern frontier follows the 

Political Boundaries. ._ _, 

Daman-Ganga towards the east and crosses Nasik, leaving 
the northern part of the district to Khandeli. It thence runs along the southern and 
eastern frontier of Khandesh, through the southern part of Nimar, Betul, Chhindwara, and 
8eoni, where the Satpura range forms the northern boundary. The frontier line thence 
turns to the south-east, including the southern part of Balaghat and almost the whole of 
Bhandara, with important settlements in Baipur. The Hal a bi dialect occupies the central 
and eastern part of the Bastar State, still farther to the east. 

From the south-eastern corner of Bhandara the line runs south-westwards, including 
Nagpur and the north-western corner of Chanda, where it turns towards the west through 
the district of Wun, leaving a narrow strip in the south to Telugu. It then continues 
towards the south, including the district of Basirn, and into the dominions of His High- 
ness the Nizam, where it again turns westwards to Akalkot and Sholapur. The frontier 
then goes south- westwards, in an irregular line, including Sholapur and Kolhapur, to the 
Ghats, and thence to the sea at Karwar. 

Marathi has to its north, in order from west to east, Gujarat!, Khand&Sl, Baja* 
. . „ _, . sthani, Western Hindi, and Eastern Hindi. To the east we 

Linguistic Boundaries. 

find Eastern Hindi, Gondi, and Telugu. Hal a bi, which is 
separated from Marathi by Chhattisgayhi and Dravidian languages, merges into Oriya in 
the east through the Bhatrl dialect. In the south we find, proceeding from the east, 
Go^di, Telugu, and Kanarese. 

The dialectic differences within the Marathi area are comparatively small, and there 
^, . is only one real dialect, viz. 9 Konkani. There are, of course, 

Dialects, • 

everywhere local varieties, and these are usually honoured by 
a separate name. On the whole, however, Marathi is a remarkably uniform language. 

Three slightly different forms may conveniently be distinguished, the Marathi of the 
Dekhan, the Marathi of Berar and the Central Provinces, and the Marathi of the Central 
and Northern Konkan. The last two forms of the language have some characteristics in 
common, and these are also shared by the rustic dialects of the Dekhan, such as the form 
of speech current among the Kun*bis of Poona. 

In the southern part of the district of Batnagiri the Konkan form of Marathi 
gradually merges into Konkani, through several minor dialects. 

2 mabIthi. 

Several broken dialects are spoken in various parts of the Marathi territory, and will be 
dealt with in connection with the various forms of that language. In the northern part of 
the coast strip belonging to Marathi we find some smaller dialects, such as Kathodi, Varli, 
Vad*val, Phud'gi, and Samvedi, which in several points agree with Gujarati-Bhill. The 
KhandeSi dialect of Khandesh, which has hitherto been classed with Marathi, lias in this 
Survey been transferred to Gujarat!. It contains a large admixture of Marathi, but the 
inner form of the language differs, and its base is a Prakrit dialect more closely related to 
Sauraseni than to Maharashtri which latter Prakrit is derived from the same base as 

modern Marathi. 

Further towards the east we find some broken dialects, such as Katiya, Hal*bi, Bhunjia, 
Nahari, and Kamari, which have been so largely influenced by Marathi that it has been 
found convenient to deal with them in this connection, though they are no true Marathi 

dialects. m 

Marathi, including its dialects, is the home tongue of several districts which are not 

included in the present Survey, such as the Portuguese terri- 
Number of speakers. torieg aBdpart of His Highness the Nizam's dominions. The 

numbers of speakers of such districts must be added to the figures returned from the 
various districts within the scope of this Survey. 

Speakers of Marathi in those districts of Central India and the Central Provinces 
over which the Peshwa and Holkar formerly held sway have been included among the 
total of those who use the Dekhan form of Marathi as their home language. The details 
will be found under the different forms of Marathi ; the total number of speakers of the 
various forms of the language within the Marathi territory is as follows :— 

MaratM of the Dekhan . . * • • ' • • # ; • 6,193,083 

Marathi of Berar and the Central Provinces (including the Nisam's dominions) . 7,677,432 

Marathi of the Konkan . . ♦ . * • * • • • 2,350,817 

Kdnkani (including Portuguese territories and Madras Presidency) . . . 1,559,029 

Total . 17,780,361 

These figures include the speakers of broken dialects in the Konkan and the Central 
Provinces. The figures for the Nizam's dominions, Portuguese India, and the Madras 
presidency have been taken from the reports of the Census of 1891. 

Marathi and its dialects is also, to some extent, spoken outside the territory where 
it is a vernacular. At the Census of 1891 Marathi and Kdnkani were separately 
returned. The figures for those districts where Marathi and Konkagi were spoken as 
foreign tongues were as follows : — 

MM&tfii spoken abroad in Number of •peakwi. 

Ajmere-Merwara » ♦ «••••••••• 1,604 

Andaman* • * • • * • * 913 

Assam • • * • J* 5 

Bengal and Feudatories ....♦•••■•• $$9 

Barman .......•••• &65 

Coorg . * • • • ■ • * • • • • * " 2 » 621 

Madras ♦ . • • • •'.-'• • » • • • • 123,530 

Mysore - . . • • * • ... . . ♦ 65,356 

Punjab and Feudatories • • * . . . • ♦ ■•.•■• • 551 

Quettah . . . . . . ' . • • • • ■ • • W*° 

Rajputana and Central India . . . . . . • » • 11,072 

Sind • • * •■■"•' " * • • *M&5* 

United Ffcmnoes and Feudatories • . • • . ♦ . • • • 7,414 

Total . 225,225 


Konkani has been returned for the purposes of this Surrey as spoken by 20 settlers 
in Chanda. The other figures which follow hare been taken from the reports of the 
Census of 1891 :— 

Where fpoken. Number of ipeateri, 

Mysore ............. 4,166 

Rajputana ............ 47 

Chanda ............. 20 

Cooig ............. 2,129 

Totaf, , 6,362 

By adding together all these figures we arrive at the following total for Marathi and 
its dialects :— 

Marathi spoken at home— 

Dekhan .......... 6,193,083 

Berar and Central Provinces ...*... 7,677,432 
Konkan . • . . . , . . . . 2,350,817 

Marithi spoken abroad ........ 225,225 

Total MabIthi . 16,446,557 

KOakani spoken at home . ♦ 1,559,029 

KOnkani spoken abroad • . . . . . • . 6,362 

Totai, KMca^I . 1,565,391 

GRAND TOTAL , 18,011,948 

The Prakrit grammarians tell us that at a very early period there were two princi- 
pal languages spoken in the Ganges and Jamna vallevs. 

Origin of Marftm. * . , *' -»* *i • 1 

Saurasenl m the west and Magadhi m the east. Be- 
tween both was situated a third dialect, called Ardhamagadhl, which must approxi- 
mately have covered the territory within which the modem dialects of Eastern Hindi are 
spoken. These dialects were recognised as the most important forms of speech in Arya- 
varta, i.e., the country to the north of the Vindhya range and the River Narmada. To 
the south of Aryavarta was the great country called Maharashtra extending southwards 
to the Kistna, and sometimes also including the country of the Kuntalas which broadly 
corresponds to the southern part of the Bombay Presidency and Hyderabad. The 
language of Maharashtra was considered to be the base of the most important literary 
Prakrit, the so-called Maharashtrl. The South-Indian author Dan<lin (sixth century 
A.D.) expressly states that the principal Prakrit was derived from the dialect spoken in 
Maharashtra.* And the oldest work in Mah&rash$rl of which we have any knowledge 
was compiled at Pratishthana, the capital of King Hala 6n the Godavari. There 
is, accordingly, no doubt that the Indian tradition derives the so-called Maharashtrl 
from the vernacular of Maharashtra, or, in the terminology of the Prakrit grammarians, 
the Maharashtra ApabhramSa, from which latter form of speech the modern Marathi is 

• See Kiv) idaxfc !. 85, Mahdratifrdira^aih bhdsharh praifiikfaik Pr*kfti** viduh. 


4, mauAthi. 

The opinion of the Indian grammarians has not been universally adopted by Euro- 
pean scholars, and it will, therefore, be necessary in this place to go into detail in order to 
explain my reasons for adhering to it. 

The arguments generally adduced against the derivation of Marathi and Maharashtri 
from the same base are of two kinds. In the first place it is argued that Maharashtri 
and Sauraseni are simply two varieties of the same dialect ; in the second place it is 
pointed out that Marathi in several respects agrees with eastern vernaculars which must 
apparently be derived from a Magadha dialect and not from the old language of the 
^aurasena country. It will be seen that both arguments are in reality one and the same, 
-and that if it could be shown that Maharashtri was a quite distinct dialect which differed 
from Sauraseni and approached the eastern Prakrits, the analogy which certainly exists 
between Marathi and eastern vernaculars could no more be adduced against deriving 
Marathi and Maharashtri from the same base. 

It will, therefore, be necessary to put the supposition of the identity of Maharashtri 
and Sauraseni to the test. 

Our knowledge of the Prakrits is to a great extent based on the Prakrit grammarians 
who were not content to describe the various vernaculars which furnished the base for 
the literary Prakrits, but who also tried to systematise them, and often seem to have 
constructed general rules out of stray occurrences or phonetical tendencies. The literary 
Prakrits in this way came to differ from the spoken vernaculars. They were not, how* 
ever, mere fictions, and the more we learn about the linguistic conditions of old India, the 
more we see that the differences stated to exist between the various Prakrit dialects in 
most cases correspond to actual differences in the spoken vernaculars. 

On the other hand, the description given of the various Prakrits by the grammarians 
is not complete, and must be supplemented from the Prakrit literature. This literature 
is considerable and it makes it possible to get a good idea of two dialects, the so-called 
Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi. ^auraseni is less known, though we are able to under- 
stand the principal features of that dialect. With regard to Magadhi we are almost 
entirely confined to the rules given by the grammarians. 

Professor Pischel has, in his masterly Prakrit Grammar, collected the materials from 
the grammarians and from the literature and rendered it a comparatively easy task to 
define the relationship between the different Prakrits. 

Three different classifications seem to be possible, aecord- 

Ctas»ification of the PrSkrits. ...1*1 !_• t. ^ x^l- • ± 

mg to the features which we choose as our starting points. 
In some features Sauras&ni agrees with Magadhi as against Maharashtri and 

Ardhamagadhi. The principal ones are the treatment of 
ern an * single consonants between vowels, and the formation of the 

passive and of the conjunctive participle. 

According to the Prakrit grammarians every Sanskrit unaspirated mute consonant 
between vowels, if not a cerebral, is dropped in the Prakrits and a faintly sounded y, or, in 
the case of p or 6, a 0, is substituted for it. This y is not, however, written in other 
than Jaina manuscripts. It seems certain that this rule of the grammarians was a gene- 
ralisation of a phonetical tendency and did not exactly correspond to the actual facts of 
the genuine vernaculars. The tendency to drop consonants in such positions must, 
however, have been strong, as we find its results largely prevalent in modern vernaculars. 
Compare Marathi kumbhdr 9 Sanskrit kumbha*{k)ara> a potter; Marathi la}$ f Sanskrit 


ta*da(g)a, a tank ; Marathi *%, Sanskrit su(ch)l, a needle ; Marathi neif#$ 9 Sanskrit 
na-(j)dnami,I don't know; Marathi if, Sanskrit bl(j)a, a seed; Marathi 6am{bhar) % 
Sanskrit Sa(t)a, hundred; Marathi pay, Sanskrit pd(d) a, a foot, and so on. 

The Prakrit grammarians make one important exception from the rule. A t between 
Towels becomes d in Sauraseni and Magadhi, but is dropped in other dialects. Thus, 
Sanskrit gatu, iSauraseni and Magadhi gada f Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi gaa, gaya, 
gone. A t between vowels is very common, and, especially, it occurs in numerous verbal 
forms. The result is that its different treatment gives a very marked character to the two 
groups. There cannot, however, be any doubt that this difference is one of time and not 
of dialect. The d is the intermediary stage between t and the dropping of the sound, 
and there can be no doubt that a d was really often pronounced in the vernaculars on 
which Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi were based. For not only does the oldest Prakrit 
grammarian Vararuchi (ii, 7) allow the change of t to d in Maharashtri in certain words, 
but the manuscripts freely write d in Maharashtri, a confusion which it would be 
difficult to explain if the distinction made by the grammarians corresponded to the actual 
facts in the spoken vernaculars, This point cannot, therefore, be made the basis of a 

The passive is formed by adding the suffix la in Sauras§ni and Magadhi, but ijja in 
the other dialects. Thus, Sanskrit krlyate, Sauraseni and Magadhi kariadi, Maharashtri 
and Ardhamagadhi karijjai, it is done. This distinction between the two group has 
been inferred from the practice of the best manuscripts. There are, however, numerous 
exceptions, and forms ending in iyyadi, which is a variant of ijjadi, seem to occur 
in Magadhi verses. This point cannot therefore be urged. 

There remains the formation of the conjunctive participle which usuduu^ ends in ia 
in Sauraseni and Magadhi and in upa in Maharashtri and often also in Ardhamagadhi,. 
This latter dialect has, however, several other forms. Thus, Maharashtri hasiuna, 
Sauraseni and Magadhi hasia, having laughed. The subsequent linguistic history of India 
shows that we are here face to face with a real distinction between the north and the 
south. The t/-form has survived in Marathi, in some Rajasthanl dialects, and in Oriya, 
while other languages use forms derived from the old participles ending in ia. 

A division of the Prakrits on account of this distinction cannot, however, seriously 
be maintained, and Sauraseni and Magadhi differ in so many points that it is out of 
question to bring them into close connection with each other. 

Dr. Hoernle, in his Comparative Grammar of the Gaudian Languages divided the 
. % „ . Prakrit dialects into a western group, viz., Sauraseni- fcfaha* 

Eastern and Western Group. ~ ,, 

rashtri, and an eastern, viz., Magadhi. These two groups 
differ in pronunciation and in the formation of the nominative singular of masculine a- 
bases. The western group changes every a-sound to a dental a, the eastern to a palatal i; 
the western substitutes j for every initial j and y, the eastern prefers y ; the western 
possesses both r and l 3 the eastern only I ; the nominative singular of masculine a-bases 
*ends in 5 in the west and in e in the east. Ardhamagadhi agrees with the west in all 
points excepting the last one, the nominative singular of masculine a-bases usually 
ending in e, but also, in old texts in d. 

This last test point, the termination of the nominative, must probably bo eliminated 
from the features which distinguish the east from the west, for the most eastern Prakrit 
4ia1ect of which we have any knowledge, the so-called phakki, which must have been 

g mabIthI 

based on the dialect spoken in Dacca, forms the nominative in 5; thus, puliso, a man. 
This dialect also differs from Magadhi in the treatment of a«sounds. It possesses a dental *, 
corresponding to * and *h in Sanskrit, and a palatal £, corresponding to Sanskrit 6; thus, 
daia, ten ; puUsassa, Sanskrit purwhasya, of the man. Dhakki also seems to use/ like 
the western Prakrits. Thus, jampidum, Magadhi yampidum, Sanskrit jalpitum, to talk. 

There thus only remains one of the test points in which the east differs from the 
west, the use of I and r respectively. I do not think that this point is of sufficient 
importance to base a classification on it. 

The division of the Prakrits into a western and an eastern group is based on the 
Fin i classification of the suppos ion that Saura&eni and Maharashtrl are essentially 
Prakrits. the same dialect. Since this theory was first put forward our 

knowledge of the Prakrits has advanced very far, and we now know that the two are radi- 
cally different. They differ in phonology, in the formation of many verbal bases and of 
many tenses, in vocabulary, and in their general character. ikurasSni has, on the whole, 
the same vocabulary as classical Sanskrit, while Maharashtrl is full of provincial words ;. 
the inflexional system of Sauraseni has nothing of the rich variety of forms which 
characterises Maharashtrl. If we add the points of disagreement adduced above, the 
wide divergence between the two dialects cannot be doubted. The relation between them 
can be compared to that existing between classical Sanskrit and the Vedic dialects, on the 
one side the correct and fixed speech of the Ushtaa, or educated classes, on the other the 
ever fluctuating, richly varied language of the masses. 

In these characteristics Maharashtrl agrees with Ardhamagadhl. The close connection 
between those two Prakrits is so apparent that it has always been recognised. Several 
scholars have even gone so far as to identify them. Nobody would do so at the present 
clay. There can, however, be no doubt with regard to the close relationship between 
them, and they may safely be classed together as forming one group as against SaurasSni. 

Ardhamagadhl is the link which connects Maharashtrl with Magadhi. This latter 
Prakrit is very unsatisfactorily known. It seems to comprise several dialects, but we are 
not, as yet, able to get a clear idea of them. In phonetics they seem to have struck out 
independent lines of their own. There are, however, sufficient indications to show that 
they had more points of analogy with Maharashtrl and Ardhamagadhl than would appear 
at the first glance. I pass by some points of phonology, and shall only draw attention to 
a few facts which seem to show that Magadhi is based on a dialect, or on dialects, which 
had an inflexional system characterized with the same rich variety of forms as in 
Maharashtrl and Ardhamagadhl. 

Magadhi has preserved traces of the old dative of «-themes» which has been through- 
out replaced by the genitive in Sauraseni. Thus, vimma, Sanskrit vinaiaya, in order to 
destroy. Such forms are, however, perhaps only correct in verses. There are two forms 
of the genitive singular aad three forms of the locative singular of a-bases ; thus, 
putta^a and puttaha> Sanskrit putrasya, Sauraseni only puttmsa, of the son ; muhe, 
Sanskrit mukhe, in the mouth ; kuvammi, Sanskrit kupe t in the well ; kulahim, Sanskrit 
kuli % in the family.' Sauraseni has only forms such as kule. 

The Atmanepada form of verbs, which in Sauraseni is confined to the first person 
singular, is used more freely in Magadhi ; optatives such as kareyyd, I may do, occur 
in Magadhi as well as the Sauraseni forms kaream or kare ; imperatives suoh as pivdhi, 
drink, are used in addition to piva, Sanskrit piba 9 but not so in SaurasSni. 


A suffix corresponding to the ilia, which plays a great rdle in Maharashtri and 
ArdhamagadhI, but not in Sauraseni, must have been common in Magadhi, as the modern 
rernaculars clearly show. Compare also Magadhi gamelm, Sanskrit gramya, boorish. 

Such instances might be multiplied if we could draw the Magadhi of the inscriptions 
and Pali into the scope of our inquiry. The preceding indications are, however, sufficient 
to show that the general character of the Magadhi dialects was more closely related to that 
of Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi than that of Sauraseni. We seem therefore to be 
justified in dividing the Prakrits into one inner group, viz., Sauraseni, and one outer 
comprising Maharashtri, ArdhamagadhI, and Magadhi. This latter group shows great 
variety in its dialects, but has throughout the same character of inflexional richness. 

There cannot, then, any more be any objection to the derivation of Maharashtri and 

Marathi from the same base, and we must return to the Indian tradition and to the 

conclusion that Maharashtri and Marathi are based on the same form of speech just as the 

two names, Maharashtri and Marathi, are two different forms of one and the same word. 

It is now permissible to draw attention to several points in which Marathi agrees 

ManthTandMihurashtri. with ^^^shtri. When similar forms also occur in other 

modern vernaculars, especially in the east, this fact is only in 
accord with the remarks above. Even Western Hindi forms can often be adduced which 
agree with Marathi and Maharashtri as against Sauraseni. This is partly to be explained 
by assuming that Western Hindi is derived from various sources. Though it is, in its 
general character, a Saurasena dialect, it has also assimilated elements from other, say 
outer, forms of speech. Maharashtri was, moreover, once the dialect of lyric poetry all 
over India, and it must necessarily have exercised an influence on other dialects, such as 
that spoken in the home of the present Western Hindi. 

Maharashtri has been preserved in two slightly varying forms, the chief language of 
Prakrit literature, and the dialect of the non-canonical literature of the Svetambara Jains. 
This latter form of the language is usually called Jaina Maharashtri, and was perhaps 
based on the vernacular spoken in Surashtra, the modern peninsula of Kathiawar, before 
the present settlers entered it. The difference between the two forms of Maharashtri is 
however, of comparatively small importance and need not trouble us in this connection. 

In comparing Marathi with Maharashtri, we cannot base our inquiry on the voca- 
bulary. In the first place we know too little of SaurasSni and Magadhi, and in the 
second place, the vocabulary of modern Aryan vernaculars does not differ to any consider- 
able extent. A comparison of the inflexions will also yield but a small result, the 
modern system being quite different from that prevailing in the old Prakrits. It will 
hence be necessary to base our conclusions on those facts in which the old Prakrits are 
known to differ from each other, and where the same difference can be traced down 
to modern times. We shall begin with some phonetical features. 

Long vowels are occasionally shortened in Maharashtri. Thus, in the common word 

kumard, Sanskrit and Sauraseni kumdro, a boy. Compare 
Marathi kumar, which is not a poetical form. Other dialects 
have kuwar and kuwar. 

Saridra, turmeric, often becomes haliddl or haladdl in Maharashtri. Compare 
Marathi halad, dative kafd%Aa % rural Hindi halad, haldi, hardu 

The Sanskrit vowel fi is sometimes differently treated in the old dialects. Thus, 
Sanskrit krita f Maharashtri and ArdhamagadhI kaa (compare Magadhi, ArdhamagadhI 


hada), but SaurasSni usually kida, done ; Sanskrit ghrita, Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi 
ghaa, but Sauraseni and Magadhi ghida, clarified butter. Similarly we find Marathi 
Ml%, i.e., kaya-illaam, done, while ghi, clarified butter, according to Molesworth fa 
scarcely used in Marathi and must be considered as a Hindi loan-word. 

Soft consonants are occasionally hardened in the Prakrits. Thus, Maharashtri 

machchai and majjm, Sanskrit mddyati, he grows mad; 
Maharashtri vachchai for vajjm* Sanskrit vrujati, he goes. 
Compare Marathi mats a n$ (Hindi mach*nd), to swell ; Konkani votsu, to go. 

The aspiration has been transferred in the Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi ghettuih y 
Sanskrit grahitum, to take. Sauraseni has genhidum. The base occurring in the 
Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi forms has only survived in Marathi. Compare ghet'li, 

Dental consonants are much more commonly cerebralised in Maharashtri, Ardhama,- 
gadhi, and also in Magadhi, than in Sauraseni. Compare Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi 
dasai, Sanskrit da&ati, he bites ; dahai, Sanskrit dahati, he burns ; dola, an eye (compare 
Sanskrit dola, oscillating) ; dollai, Sanskrit doldyate, he swings ; dohalaa, Sanskrit 
dohalaka, the longings of a pregnant woman. Similarly we find Mara|hic?as a #i^ to bite ; 
dahb (poetical), hoat ; dd^zne, to be hot; dola, an eye ; ddhfld, longings of a pregnant 
woman, etc. Similar forms occur also in other dialects. 

We may add stray forms such as Sanskrit kshetra, Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi 
chhetta, Marathi Set, but Sauraseni khetta, Hindi khet, afield ; Maharashtri kira, Marathi 
Mr, but Sauraseni and Sanskrit Hla, forsooth ; Sanskrit gardnbha, Maharashtri gaddaha, 
Marathi gddhav, but Sauraseni gaddaha, Hindi gadhd, an ass ; Sanskrit pafichaSat f 
Maharashtri panndsam, Marathi pannas, while other modern vernaculars have forms such 
as Western Hindi pachas. 

The termination of the nominative singular of masculine abases was 5 in Maharashtri 

and Sauraseni. The same is the case in old Marathi, thus, 
raw, a V* ig ; nandanu, a son. The final u in the latter form 
is directly derived from an older 6. 

The genitive of i-bases, with which old ew-base9 were confounded, ends in issa and 
ino in Maharashtri and Ardhamagadhi, but only in i#o in Sauraseni ; thus, aggissa and 
aggino, Sanskrit agneh, of the fire ; hatthissa and hatthino, Sanskrit hastinah^ of an elephant. 
The form hatthissa directly corresponds to Marathi hdthls. 

With regard to pronouns we may note that the typical Maharashtri forms majjha f 
my ; tvjjha, thy, have survived in Marathi madzhd, my ; tudzha, thy. 

The Marathi verb shows something of the same rich variety 
as the Maharashtri one. 

Thus we not only find the old present, future, and imperative, but also some traces 
of the precative. 

Compare — 

dekhi indriyl adhina hoije, taT litdshna-ti 

see of-senses dependent he may-become, then cold-and-heat 

pavijS api sukhaduhkhi akajije apana-pf; 

he-tcill-get and with*pteasure~and-sorrow he»mll*bind himself; 
* 8ee if a man is dependent on his senses, then he will feel cold and heat and become 
subject to the feeling of pleasure and sorrow ' (Dnyanefoari, ii, 119). Such forms have 


usually been explained as passives, by assuming that the old passive can also be used as 
an active. The explanation given above seems, however, in some eases preferable 

The old passive survives in forms such as Mkrtf, to be got ; ais*nl to appear, and 
so on. In old poetry, however, a passive formed with the characterise /is in common use - 
thus, mdhijati, they are killed ; kije, it is done. Such forms have been confounded with 
the remains of the old precative, and both were probably felt to be identical In 
modern Marathi only the forms mhatfjd, it is said, namely; and pahije> it is wanted 
have survived. * 

It is of importance to note that such forms correspond to the MaMrashtri passive 
ending in ijjm> while Saurasdni has HdL 

Marathi infinitives such as mdri, to strike, are directly derived from Maharashfrl 
forms such as marium, to strike. The participle of necessity, which ends in aw in 
MaMrashtri, tavya in Sanskrit, has survived in most modern dialects, sometimes as a 
future or an infinitive, as in eastern dialects, sometimes as a present participle passive as 
in Sindhi. Marathi, as well as Gujarati, uses forms derived from this participle as infini- 
tives, but haa also retained it in its original meaning of a future participle passive. Thus, 
Marathi myd kar&ve, Maharashtrl mae kariavvam, it should be done by me, I should do. ' 

The Marathi conjunctive participle in m $ old Marathi £ and u~ma, i.e. u + niS, is 
derived from the corresponding MaMrashtri form ending in ma and urn, and has nothing 
to do with the gaurasenl form which ^adds m. Thus, Sanskrit hfUva, MaMrashtri 
kariinia, kariam, Marathi kari, karunia, karun t but Sauraseni karia and kadm. 

We may add the frequency with which the suffix ilia is used in Maharashtra and 
probably all eastern Prakrits, just as its modern representative I in Marathi, and, lastly, 
the use of the emphatic particle MaMrashtri and Ardhamagadhl chea, chia, chcha 
Marathi chi, ts, Chhattlsgarhl eeh f but ^aurasenl jgea, Gujarati and BajasthanI j. 

Such points of agreement cannot fail to add strength to the conclusion that MaM- 
rashtri Prakrit was based on the vernacular of the MaratM country, which is the direct 
source from which modern Marathi is derived. 

Marathi is the only modern vernacular which has been derived from the old Maha- 
piace of Marsthf in reference riishtra Apabhramla. TMt latter form of speech had a dis- 

to other Indo-Aryan vernaculars. ^^ oharacter of its QWn< Thm%h being rf ^ ^^ 

general kind as the eastern vernaculars, it differed from them in several points 
and sometimes agreed with Sauraseni, especially in the pronunciation of certain 
sounds. The modern representative of the old Maharashtra Apabhramla is Marathi and 
it is, therefore, to be expected that that form of speech occupies a somewhat independent 
position, sometimes agreeing with the languages of the outer, and sometimes with those of 
tiie inner group. That is also the case. Moreover, the conservative character of Marathi 
has tended to make this independence greater than it was, and at the present day 
Marathi is a language with very well marked frontiers, and does not merge into any of 
the neighbouring forms of speech. The border line between Marathi on one side and 
Gujarati, BajasthanI and Western Hindi on the other, is very sharply marked. In the 
west we see that Gujarati BhUi and Khandefi gradually become more and more influenced 
by Marathi. But even when such dialects assume the linguistic form of Marathi, as in 
the case of Valval, Varli, etc., they retain the character of mixed forms of speech and 
are no real connecting links. Similar is the state of affairs in the east, The Hal*bl 
dialect is not a connecting link between Marathi, Chhattlsgarhl and Ortya, but a 

I<? marIthL 

mechanical mixture of all these three languages, spoken by a tribe whose language did 
not originally belong to the Indo- Aryan Family. 

Relation of Marttitf to the in* I* ka* 9 already been stated that Marathi in some points 
ner Group. agrees with the languages of the inner group* The principal 

ones are as follows :— 

The pronunciation generally. In Konkani, however, we find soma features which 
agree with the state of affairs in the east. Thus Konkani possesses the short e and o 
sounds and pronounces the short a like the o in * hot.' 

Mara|hi has two a*sounds, a dental 8 and a palatal 6. This latter sound is used 
before y and before i, i, and e, which vowels are usually pronounced almost as pi, y%> ye f 
respectively, a state of affairs which is not in accord with the principles prevailing in the 
east. The palatal pronunciation of 8 is, therefore, due to the combination of 8 and y, and 
quite different from the Bengali S f which has another origin as the eastern Prakrits 
clearly show. Some Marathi dialects only know the dental a. 

The pronunciation of the palatals as U, dz, respectively, also occurs in some eastern 
dialects, and in KaSmiri. A similar pronunciation is common in several dialects of 
Gujarati and Bajasthani. Exact parallels to the Marathi pronunciation of * and of the 
palatals are only found in Telugu. Such points do not, therefore, prove a closer con- 
nexion between the pronunciation of Marathi and of eastern vernaculars. 

On the other hand, v and b are distinguished as in Gujaratl, Panjabi, Sindhi, 
and, partly, in Bajasthani. Marathi has a cerebral I like Bajasthani, Gujarati, Panjabi, 
and also Oriya. 

With regard to the inflexion of nouns and verbs, it should be noted that Marathi 
has three genders like Gujarati and some rural dialects of Western Hindi. 

The nominative singular of strong masculine bases ends in a as in the east and in 
some dialects of Western Hindi, but in o in Konkani. The nominative plural ends in e 
as in Western Hindi. 

Marathi possesses a separate case of the agent and, in consequence thereof, uses the 
passive construction of the past tense of transitive verbs. The verb is put in the neuter 
singular if the object is accompanied by a case suffix. In the Konkan, however, it 
agrees with the object also in such cases, just as it does in Gujarati and Bajasthani. 
Konkani also agrees with Gujarati in possessing a separate form of the nominative singu- 
lar of the personal pronoun of the first person ; thus Konkani hav, Gujarati htt> I. 

The nominative singular masculine of demonstrative and relative pronouns ends in 
o as in Western Hindi, like the nominative of masculine abases in Maharishtri. 

Marathi uses an *t-suffix to form a verbal noun, as does also Western Hindi. The 
same suffix, however, also occurs in Eastern Hiudi, and Marathi has also a v infinitive 
like Gujarati and eastern vernaculars. 

None of these points are of sufficient importance to prove a closer connexion 
between Marathi and the languages of the inner group. They are partly due to the con- 
servative nature of the language, as in the case of the preservation of a separate case 
of the agent, and they are partly of the same nature as those features in whioh 
Maharashtri agreed with Saurasenl, 

In other points Marathi agrees with the languages of the outer circle. The points 

Relation of Marifhf to th© of analogy in pronunciation have already been noted, and it 

Outer circle. j^ been B ^ e ^ ^ at t fc ey are f relatively small importance. 


Oil the other hand, the preceding pages dealing with the relationship between Marathi 
and Maharashtri will have revealed many facts which show that the phonetical laws 
of Marathi often closely agree with those prevailing in the east. Of greater importance, 
however, are several points of analogy in inflexion. 

All weak a-bases in Marathi have an oblique form ending in a ; thus, bap f a father, 
dative bapa-la. The same form also occurs in the east. Thus, Bihari pahar, a guard, 
oblique pati*rd. The eastern vernaculars do not, it is true, use this form regularly. Its 
existence is, however, of sufficient importance to be adduced in this place. Marathi also 
shows the origin of this form. In addition to the oblique base ending in a, it also, 
dialectically, uses a form ending in as ; thus, in the Konkan, bdpds-na, by the father. 
Bap&8 directly corresponds to the Maharashtri form bappassa, of a father, and it is 
evident that bdpd has the same origin, the change of 88 to h being already found in 

The termination of the second person singular of verbal teases ends in 8 as in Bengali, 
Bihari, and Eastern Hindi. Konkaiii, however, uses y like Kalmiri, and in Berar and the 
Central Provinces the second person is usually formed like the third person without an 8. 

The past tense has different forms for the three persons, as in eastern dialects. The 
personal suffixes are the same as in the case of the old present, and it is, therefore, doubt- 
ful whether Marathi possesses the so-called pronominal suffixes which play so great a 
rdle in many outer languages. The 8 ^bieh is, in some dialects, added to the second 
person singular of all verbs, may perhaps be such a suffix. In a similar way we some- 
times find a t added to the second person plural, and an n to the third person singular. 
Compare forms such as karil$8 f it was done (by thee) ; smgilHan (Konkan and Berar), 
it was said (by him). Such forms are, however, only occasionally used, and the whole 
question about pronominal suffixes must be left open so far as Marathi is concerned. 

The past tense is formed by adding an J-suffix as in the east. This feature pervades 
the whole conjugational system and gives a peculiar colour to the language which is 
entirely wanting in the inner group. Gujarati, it is true, forms a pluperfect participle by 
adding an J-suffix. This seems, however, to be one of those points in which that 
language has been influenced by the vernaculars formerly spoken in its present home. 
The J-suffix must be derived from the Prakrit suffix ilia which played a great rdle in 
Maharashtri, Ardhamagadhi, and probably also in Magadhi. It is a secondary suffix, 
added to the old past participle passive, and it is, consequently, originally not necessaiy. 
We also find that it is occasionally dropped, not only in the east, but also in Marathi 
dialects ; thus, Chitpavani mdy a ra and mdrila, it was struck. On the other hand, this 
suffix is used in a much wider way in Konkani. The oldest instance of its use in the 
modern way is the Ardhamagadhi dnilliya^ brought. 

The future is forpied by adding au U or ^-suffix. This form has been compared with 
the l-present in Bihari. An J-f uture also occurs in Bajasthani and some northern dialects. 
The base of the Marathi future is identical with the habitual past, the old present. 
Sometimes, however, the two differ; thus Nagpuri nidzo, I used to sleep, but n%izal f 
I shall sleep ; Karhadi mar^ih thou wilt strike (the corresponding form of the habitual 
past does not occur in the materials available). It is, therefore, perhaps allowable 
to conclude that the Marathi future (and past habitual) has preserved traces of two old 
forms, the present and future. Maharashtri future forms such as karihi8i, thou wilt do; 
karihii, he will do, would regularly become karU and kat% in Marathi. 

U mabAthI. 

The most important points in which Marathi agrees with eastern vernaculars are 
thus the oblique form of weak a-bases, the termination of the second person singular of 
verbal tenses, the distinguishing of the various persons in the past tense, and the i-raffix 
of the same form. These points are of sufficient importance to justify us in stating a 
closer relationship between Marathi and the languages of the east. It should, however, 
be borne in mind that all these characteristics can be explained from the features of 

Maharashtri "PraVnt. 

In many points Marathi differs from all other Indo- Aryan vernaculars. We may 
mention the almost universal use by nouns of a distinct oblique base ; the dative in a ; 
the genitive suffix Ua; the possessive pronouns madzha, my ; twhha, thy ; the numeral 
pann&s, fifty ; the conjunctive participle ending in un (compare, however, Oriya), and so on. 
The position of Marathi as compared with other Indo* Aryan vernaculars may, there- 
fore, be defined as follows. In some points it has developed 
enera cone usion. peculiar forms of its own ; in others it agrees with the lan- 

guages of the ioner group, more especially, in pronunciation ; and in important points of 
inflexion it forms one group with the eastern vernaculars of the outer circle. 

In the Konkan there are important points of agreement with Gujaratl, a fact which 
may perhaps be accounted for by the supposition that the Marathi-speaking inhabitants 
of the Konkan once occupied the modern Gujarat, and only settled in the Konkan after 
having lived for some time in the neighbourhood of the Gujaratis. The tradition according 
to which their original home was Trihdtra may be a faint recollection of such a migration. 
The Maratha country has long been famous for its literature. The Vaidarbhi Riti, 

the literary style of the Berar school of Sanskrit writers, was 
highly praised by Dandin, as far superior to the artificial style 
of the east, the Gaudiya Riti. The old Maharashtri lyrics fully justify this praise, and 
later poets such as Rajasekhara proudly mention Maharashtra as SaraBvathjanma-bhufy t 
the birth-place of the goddess of eloquence, where the sweet and serene, the graceful and 
agreeable, nectar of poetry is found. We cannot in this place give even a rapid survey 
of the Prakrit and Sanskrit literature connected with Maharashtra. We must be 
content to give a short account of the later literature in Marathi. 

The revival of literature in the Maratha country is, just as is the case elsewhere in 
India, closely connected with the religious renaissance which can be traced from the time 
of Sankara down to the present day. The oldest Marathi literature is, therefore, religious. 
It is due to the wish to make the religious thoughts and ideas of the old Sanskrit litera- 
ture accessible to those who were not masters of any language other than their own 
vernacular. Sanskrit works were, therefore, translated and free paraphrases were made. 
The bulk of Marathi literature is of this description, and like its prototype, it is written in 
verse. Prose compositions are later, and have not played the same r61e. 

For the history of Marathi literature and the development of the Marathi language it 
is of importance to note that almost all its poets have come from the Dekhan and the coun- 
try round Paithan, The Konkan and Berar do not claim a single name of importance. 

The beginning of Marathi literature seems to be connected with the Vishnuite 
reformation inaugurated by Ramanuja (beginning of the twelfth century). To him 
Vishnu was the * Supreme Deity, endowed with every possible gracious attribute, full of 
love and pity for the sinful beings who adore him, and granting the released soul after 
death a home of eternal bliss near him.' 


The same religious devotion to Vishnu, or, as he calls him Vithoba, meets us 
in the Abhangs 1 of Namder, who is considered to be the first Mara|hi poet. He 
was a tailor from Pandharpur, and probably flourished in the middle of the thirteenth 
century. Most of his works have been lost, but some of his stanzas have found 
their way into the Adigranth of the Sikhs, and they can still impress us with his 
devotion to God, for whom he longs * as the Chakravaka longs for his mate or a child for 
its mother.' 

A contemporary of Namdev was Dnyanoba, or Bnyane^var who wrote a paraphrase 
of the BhagavadgMa in the Ovl metre. He lived at Alandi, north of Poona, and his 
work, the Dnydneharl or Bhdvdrthadlpikd, is dated !§akal212 = 1280 A.D. This work 
is very highly esteemed among the Marathas. It is penetrated by deep xeligious feeling, 
but is also pervaded with the barren philosophy of later Hinduism. 

The poet Mukundaraya probably belongs to the same age. His best known work is 
the Vivefca-SindhU) or Ocean of Discrimination, which is strongly influenced by orthodox 

The next important poet whose works have been preserved is Ekanath, a Rigvedin 
from Paithan, who died in 1609. His favourite metre was the Ovl, but he also wrote 
Abhangs. His principal works are based on Sanskrit originals and are devoted to the 
praise of Vishnu. His Mkandthl Bhdgavata is based on the 11th Skanda of the Bhagavata- 
Purdna % and has been printed in Bombay. He further wrote the Bhavdrtha- 
Mdmdyaya, the JRukmini-Svayamvara, the Svdtrnasukha) etc., and also composed works 
in Hindostam. He was a contemporary of Shahji, the father of Sivajl, and is spoken of 
as an ardent student of the Dnydnefoarl. 

His daughter's son was Muktegvar, who was born in 1609, and lived at Paithan. 
He is often spoken of as the master of the Ovi metre, and his principal works are para- 
phrases of Sanskrit originals. He wrote part of a Mahdbhdrata, a Bhdgavata, a Sata* 
fnukhaSdvaydkhydna, and, according to tradition, also a Mdmdycuta. 

We have now come down to the time of Sivaji, the founder of the Maratha power. 
This national hero, who is usually known as a rude and treacherous warrior, was himself 
influenced by the growing Marathi literature, and its greatest poet courted his favour. He 
sat as a pupil at the feet of Ramdas (1608-1681), the son of a Kulkarni in , Jamb at the 
Godavari, who spent his life in devotion to Rama, and hence changed his name 
Narayao to Ramdas. Sivaji is said at one time to have offered him his whole kingdom, 
but Ramdas declined the offer, and continued till his death to live as an unmarried 
devotee. The principal work of this author is the Ddsbodh, on religious duties, and he 
also wrote numerous Abhangs and Slokas. 

Tukaram (1608-1649) was born at Dchu, a small village to the north of Poona, and 
his father is said to have been a Sudra. By profession he was a wandering reciter of 
Kathds or religious stories and legends, and he is considered to have brought the Abhang to 
the highest perfection. His poetry is devoted to the praise of Vithoba. Religious longing 
and devotion, affectionate \oj e and moral purity, are the keynotes of his verses, many of 
which are also remarkable for the sincere consciousness they exhibit of the idea of sin, — an 
expression of religious faith rarely met with in older literature, but which was in later 
times imitated by poets such as Mahipati. 

1 * Abhang * is the name of ft metre. The word means * unbroken,' and refers to the poems being of Indefinite length, 
and to the loose, flowing, nature of the rhjthm. 

14 MAHlTHl. 

A contemporary of Tukaram was Vaman Papdit (died 1673), a RigvedinfromSatara, 
who studied in Benares, and also wrote in Sanskrit. His style is heavy, and the pre- 
dilection for yamakas and other artificial embellishments show the growing influence 
of the Sanskrit Kavyd* He wrote a commentary on the Bhagavadgita in the Ovi metre, 
called the Yathdrthadlpikd, and numerous works based en the Mahdbhdrata, the 
Mdmdyana, the Bhdgavata, and so on, 

!§rldbar (1678-1728), the most copious of all Maratha poets, was a Brahman from the 
neighbourhood of Pandharpur. His works were mostly based on the Sanskrit epics and 
on the Puranas, and are highly popular. Some of the titles are Bdmavijaya, Marivijaya, 
Pdydavapratdpa, SivaUldmrita> and so on. 

Amritaraya, who was a De^astha Brahman, lived in Aurangabad about the middle of 
the eighteenth century. He was renowned as a Sighrakavi, 1 and wrote also in Hindostanl. 
His works are partly based on the Puranas, and are partly of a more metaphysical 
description. They abound in various kinds of alliterations. Like Tukaram he used 
to perform recitations. 

A younger contemporary of Amritaraya was Moropant or Mayura Pa?dit (1729* 
1794), a Karhada Brahman from Baramati in the Poona district. As a boy he acquired 
considerable proficiency in Sanskrit, in which language he also wrote some poems. His 
Marathi works are largely influenced by Sanskrit poetry. He used all the artificial appa- 
ratus of Sanskrit rhetoric, and freely introduced Sanskrit words into his Marathi. His 
works, which include a Bhdrata, a Bhdgavata, several Mdrndyatias, a Mayurakekdvali, 
and so forth, are held in high estimation among his countrymen, but are less palatable to 
European taste. 

Mahlpati (1715-1790), a Delastha Brahman of the Rigvedins from Tahrabad near 
Paithan, was an imitator of Tukaram, but his chief importance rests on the fact that he 
collected the popular traditions about national saints, and put them in a poetical form. 
His various works, such as the JBhaktumjaya, the Bhaktaltldmrita, the Santavijaya, the 
SantaUldmrita> are usually described as the Acta Sanctorum of the Marathas. They are 
partly based on older works by Nabhaji and Udbhavaehidgan, but partly also on oral tradi- 
tion, and narrate the miraculous life and doings of older deified poets such as Dnyanoba 
and Tukaram. 

There are, besides, a great many minor poets, such as Chintamani, Baghunath (end of 
eighteenth century), Prabhakara and others, who mainly based their poems on the Puranas, 
the Mahabharata, and the Bamayana. It is not, however, possible to enter into details. 

Almost all the Marathi poetry mentioned on this and the preceding pages is religious. 
Erotic lyrics have, however, also been highly appreciated by the Marathas from the earliest 
times. We possess a precious testimony to this leaning of tbe national mind in the 
famous Sattaml of Hala. In modern Marathi the erotic poetry is principally represented 
by the so-called Ldm$U> small ballads usually put into the mouths of women, and often 
of a rather scandalous description. Among the authors of Lavanls we may mention 
Anantaphandi (1744-1819), a Yajurvedin from Ahtnadnagar, who also mis-used his 
poetical genius in lavishing praise on Baji Bad, the last Peshwa, and Ramjo^I (1762- 
1812), a De£astha Brahman from Sholapur. In this connection we may also mention the 
Naukd Krldan of ViJvanath, and the Anangarang of Kalyana Mala. 

I A iighrahavi it a poet who is able to compose a poom on any topic without preparation or delay, an improvitator* or 
extemporising poet 


The feats of the national heroes from Sivajl and downwards, have furnished materials 
far numerous Pavddds, or war-ballads, mostly by nameless poets, which are sung every* 
where in the country. Lastly, the numerous proverbs current among the Marathis 
should be noticed. A good selection has been published by Manwaring. See Authorities 

The prose literature in MarathI is of much smaller importance. It embraces narra- 
tives of historical events, the so-called Bahhars; moral maxims such as the Fidur Mti; 
folk tales, such as the Fetal BanUvlil, the Simhamn BattUl, the Suh Bahattarl, and so 
forth. In modern times a copious literature of prose works has arisen, mainly translations 
from English, and several journals and newspapers in MaratM are published, chiefly in 
Bombay and Poona. 


A. — Early reference*. 

Maharashtra as the name of a country, does not seem to occur before the sixth 
century A.D., when it is mentioned by Varahamihira in his Brihat-Samhitd, v, 64. The 
reference to the language of Maharashtra as the base of the principal Prakrit in Dandin's 
Katyadarto, i, 85, belongs to about the same time. 

The name was also known to the Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsiang, to AlbirunI, and to 
Ziau-'d-dln Barni. See the references in Yule's Hobson-Jobsm, s. r. Mahratta. 

The first reference to Maharashtrl as the name of a language seems to be in Vara- 
ruchi's Prakrit Grammar, the date of which cannot be ascertained. Other grammarians 
simply use Pr&kfitam, i.e., the Prakrit language, instead. 

Later authors, such as Ramatarkavaglla and Kramadi£vara, mention a dialect called 
Dakshinatya as a form of Apabhramla, i.e., in this connection, as one of the vernaculars 
of India. Dakshi?atya is, in the Sahitya Darpana stated to be identical with 
Vaidarbhika, the vernacular of Berar. Dakshioatya is usually mentioned together with 
Magadhi and Ardhamagadhi and Professor Lassen was therefore inclined to class it with 
those dialects. We are not, however, told that Dakshinatya has any characteristics of its 
own. On the contrary, Markandeya expressly states that Dakshioatya is not a separate 
dialect, lak*hanakaranat> because it has no characteristic marks of its own. It is, therefore, 
impossible to base anything upon the names Dakshinatya and Vaidarbhika. They may, 
©r may not, correspond to the modern Dakhini and Yarhadi, the dialects of the Dekhan 
and Berar respectively. Modern MarathI is, at all events, so old that the mention of 
Dakshinatya and Vaidarbhika can refer to it. The oldest MarathI inscription of which 
anything is known, goes back to about A.D. 1115-8, and an inscription of some extent is 
dated A.D. 1207. Compare Epigraphia Indioa, Vol. i, pp. 343 and f.; Vol. vii, p. 109. 
It should be mentioned that a reference to the dialect of the Dakshinatyas, or Southerners, 
occurs in the Mriohohhakatik&, where we are told that it was no distinct form of speech. 
On account of their knowledge of various aboriginal languages the Dakshinatyas are said 
to speak as they thought proper. The passages which might be expected to illustrate this 
dialect are, however, written in Saurasenl. 

The first mention of the Maratha country in Europe seems to be found in Friar Jor- 
danus* Mirabilia J)e$cripta (c. 1328). The passage containing the reference has been 
reprinted in Yule's Mobson-Jobson, I. c, and is as follows : — 

4 o 1328.^ " In this Greater India aro twelve idolatrous Kings, and more . ♦ . There is also the 
Kingdom of Maratha which is very great."— .Friar Jordanu$, 41.' 

16 MARiTHl. 

The same authority also reproduces the earliest mention of the Marathi language of 
which I am aware. It has heen taken from John Fryer's— A New Account of Bait India? 
and Per$ia $ London, 1698, and it is dated 1673. It is as follows :— 

4 1673. " They tell their tale in Morafcfcy : by Profession they are Gentues,"— Fryer, 174/ 

Other old references to the Marathas and their country will be found in Hobson* 
Job$on. They may here be left out of consideration, and we shall turn to early mentions 
of the language. 

The Konkan form of Mar&thi was early dealt with by Portuguese missionaries* who* 
called it the northern dialect of Konkani. A paraphrase of the contents of the Gospels in 
that language by Francisco Vas de Quimaraeiis, was printed in 1659, and a grammar by 
an unknown missionary was completed in the seventeenth century. See the authorities 
quoted under Konkan Standard below, p. 65. 

The Konkanl dialect was described at a still earlier date. The old references will be 
found among the authorities dealing with that form of speech. See p. 166. 

Maratbi itself began to occupy European scholars early in the eighteenth century. 
It was considered to comprise two dialects, Balabande and Marathi. In reality, however, 
these are only the two common characters used in writing Marathl, Balabande corre- 
sponding to the Balbodh and Marathl to the Modi character. 

Marathi does not seem to be represented in the translations of the Lord's Prayer 
published by Joh. Chamberlayne in 1715. La Croze in a letter to TheophHus Siegfried 
Bayer dated November, 1731, mentions Marathi as Marathica lingua, also called Bala* 
bande. He rightly remarks that the written character is identical with Devanagarl. See 
Thesaurus epistolicm £acrozianm, Vol. iii, Lipsiae 1746, p. 64, where a specimen of 
the written character is given. La Croze derives the alphabet from Hebrew. 

In the same work, Vol. i, Lipsiae 1742, p. 338, is printed a letter from Benj. Sehultze* 

the well-known author of one of the first Hindustani grammars, who for some time lived 

as a missionary in Madras. The letter is dated the 28th January 1734, and it contains 

the incidental remark that Sehultze had sent specimens in the Devanagarl and Balabande 

languages to Europe. We learn from other sources that he * furnished translations of the 

Lord's Prayer into Marathi. His manuscripts were preserved in Leipzig, and afterwards 

published in several collections, for the first time in the Orientalisch- und Occidentaliscker 

Sjwachmeister of Johann Friedrich Fritz. This book which was printed at Leipzig, 1748, 

was an enlarged reprint of a similar work by Johann Heinrich Hager, published in 

Leipzig, 1741, which is, in its turn, based on older collections by Andreas Miiller. The 

Sprachmeister was, however, revised by the Danish Missionary Benj. Sehultze, just 

mentioned, who added 15 Indian specimens from his own collections. It accordingly 

contains the Modi character on pp. 94 and ff. which is called Marathicum Alphabetum* 

On pp. 120 and ff. some remarks on Hindustani, taken from Sohultze's Qrammatica 

Hindostanica, have been printed. We are here told that the Balabandish and? 

Marathish language is a daughter of the Beteandgara language, that is of Sanskrit. 

P. 124 gives the Balabandu, i.e., the Balbodh character. On p. 206, we find the first 

ten numerals in Marfttbi figures. Between pp. 212 and 213 is inserted a comparative 

vocabulary called Tabula exhibens harttm linguarum affinitatem et differentiam. The 

fifth and sixth columns in this table contain some words in Marathi, with the headings 

Marathice and Balqbandice> respectively. The two columns are identical. Column 9 

contains the same words in Konkani, Ctmcanice. To the Sprachmeister is annexed a 

18 mabAtuL 

Garbkz, G.,— (JRwteto of) Veber das Saptacatakam des Hdla. Ein Beitrag *ur Kenntniss des Prakrit , 
von Albrecht Weber. Leipzig, 1870. Journal Asiatique, 6 e serie, Vol. xx, pp. 197 and ff. 

Beames, J., — A Comparative Grammar of the modern Aryan Language* of India, Three volumes. London, 

Hoernle, A. F. Rudolf,— E«ai/5 in aid of a Comparative Grammar of the Gaufian Languages, 
Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. Vol. xli, Fart i, 1872, pp. 120 and ff ; xlii, Part i, 

1873, pp. 59 and ff ; xliii, Part i, 1874, pp. 22 and ff. 

Campbell, Sir George, — Specimen* of Language* of India, including those of the aboriginal Tribe* of 
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Sinclair, W, F.,~ On the Boundaries of the Mar&tht Language, Indian Antiquary, "Vol. iii, 1874, 
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Deutsohea Morgenlandkchen Gesellsehaft. Vol. xlix, 1895, pp. 393 and ff j Vol. 1, 1896, pp. 1 

„ „ — On certain Suffixes in the Modern Indo-Aryan Vernacular*. Zeitschrift 

fUr vergleichende Sprachforschung, Vol. xxxviii (xviii), 1903, pp. 473 and ff. 
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C. — Grammars and Beading 'books. 

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edition. X&boa, 1825. 
Carey, William,-— Grammar of the Mahratta Language, with Dialogues of familiar subjects. Seram- 

pore, 1805. 
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Gungadhur,— Rudiment* of Grammar. Poona, 1836, and Bombay, 1838. 
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and Marathi Languages. 3rd edition. Bombay, 1851. 
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Burgess, E.,— Grammar of the Marathi Language. Bombay, 1854. 

iNTmoDuewoir. 10 

Qrammatica da lingua Concani no dialect o do Norte, compost a no seculo xvii por hum missionario 

Portugues ; e agora pel a primeira ves dada & estampa {por Joachim Heliodoro da Cunha Rivara). 

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Third edition, Bombay, 1894. 
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Bhide, G.H., — Marathi-English Primer, Bombay, 1889. 

Navalkab, Rev. Ganpatbao, R., — An Introduction to Marathi Grammar. Bombay, 1891. 
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on a new plan, with the analysis of sentences, prosody, figures oj speech, short lifes of the chief 

Marathi poets. . . etc* Poona, 1895. 
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J) .-—Dictionaries. 

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English. Part ii, English and Marsha. Bombay, 1824. 
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Bombay, 1831. Second edition. Revised and enlarged by J. T. Molesworth. Bombay, 18W. 
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A Marathi and English Vocabulary. Compiled from Kennedy and Molesworth* $ Dictionaries. Bombay, 

Baba Padmanji, — Compendium of Molesworth* s Marathi and English Dictionary. Bombay, 1863. Third 

edition, 1882. 
„ „ ~-Engli*h-Marathi Dictionary. Bombay, 1870. Third edition, 1889. 
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institutions. Vol. ii, London, 1871, pp. 15 and ff, contains comparative vocabularies, Mahratti, 

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„ „ „ — - A School Dictionary, English and Martyhl. Bevised and enlarged by 

Dadoba Pandurang. Filth edition, Bombay, 1881. New edition, Bombay, 1892. 
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Gajanan Cmintaman Dev,~~ The Pronouncing Pocket Dictionary. English and Marathi. Poona, 1893. 
Habi Krishna DAmlb,— J. Glossary. Bombay, 1893. 
V, Subyanarayan Rao,— An English'Marathi Vocabulary. Madras, 1893. 
Ambaji Konhere, Mcmbaikab,— • A Compendium of a Marathi into Marathi and English Dictionary* 

Poona, 1896. 
Sexton, J-, — A Short Marathi-English Vocabulary. Bombay, 1899. 

Mahadeo Vinayak TJidvaj, — Pocket School Dictionary, English and Marathi. Bombay, 1901. 
„ „ „ — Student's English and Marathi Dictionary. Bombay, 1901. 




G. A. GRIERSON, CLE., Ph.D., DXitt., I.CLS. (retd.) 




ASHOK RAJ PATH, (opp. patna college) PATNA (bihar) 

With kind permission of Govt, of India. 

First Edition 1927 

reprint 1967 

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